WHAT IS PURE DRINKING WATER?
In the Bahamas and Caribbean Islands our drinking water comes from seawater, wells, rainwater capture systems, or the city tap. Many people also drink plastic bottled water. Drinking water that is produced from desalinated seawater provides some of the best tasting and healthy water possible. Typical seawater contains 36,000 parts per million (PPM) of total dissolved solids (TDS). Reverse Osmosis desalination systems convert the seawater to ultra-clean drinking water with TDS reduced to approximately 100-200 PPM. The United States Environmental Protection Association has established 500 PPM as the maximum acceptable level of TDS for pure drinking water. This measurement of PPM and TDS purity typically relates to salt particles which are the smallest of the inorganic dissolved solids and does not account for certain biological micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and water borne diseases that are commonly found in brackish water, surface water and city tap water. Additional sterilization of the post RO desalination water is required to completely remove these biological contaminants. The combination of Ultraviolet Light (UV) or Ozone Sterilization with reverse osmosis is the most effective method for removing 99.9% of biological contaminants. Shallow well water typically contains higher concentrations of sediment that must be removed before the water enters the RO system to protect the expensive RO membrane. Special sediment filters are designed for this purpose. To ensure the tap water in your home or office is pure and safe to drink a high quality RO system with Ultraviolet Light or Ozone disinfection should be installed.

WHAT IS REVERSE OSMOSIS?
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a water purification process that uses pumps, pressure vessels and semi-permeable RO membranes to remove the total dissolved solids (TDS) such as salt, metals and harmful inorganic elements from the source water. The source water is placed under high pressure and moved through pressure vessels that contain the RO membranes. The RO membranes remove the high concentrations of TDS. Concentrate or brine water is discharged from the RO membranes and pure permeate (drinking) water is moved to a storage or pressure tank. Reverse Osmosis is a highly reliable process for removing salt, toxic metals, chemicals and other inorganic contaminants from source water. However, some biological and organic contaminants including viruses, bacteria and parasites must be removed from the source water by Ozone or Ultraviolet Light (UV) Disinfection in combination with the RO process.

WHAT IS RO SEAWATER DESALINATION?
Seawater Desalination has become an affordable solution to cope with the fresh water shortage in The Bahamas and Caribbean Islands. Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the core process used to remove salt from the seawater and produce fresh drinking water. The seawater is drawn into the RO system by a feed pump which pushes the water through the pre-filters to remove any sediment or large particle contaminants. The seawater then enters a high pressure pump and is pressurized to 900-1,200 psi before reaching the RO membranes where the salt and other dissolved solids are removed. High quality RO membranes in good operating condition will reject 99.9% of the dissolved salts in seawater. The normal salinity of seawater is 36,000 parts per million of dissolved salts or solids. This is referred to as ppm and TDS. The TDS water quality that should be expected from a properly functioning RO seawater desalination system is 100-200 ppm. Fresh product water from the RO desalination system should not exceed 500 ppm, which is the maximum acceptable TDS for drinking water as established by the United States Environmental Protection Association.

WHAT IS ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT (UV) DISINFECTION?
Ultraviolet Light (UV) Disinfection is a method of sterilization used to remove biological contaminants and microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites from the source water including shallow well water and tap water. UV disinfection is a very effective, reliable and safe method of sterilization that when combined with RO systems will produce ultra-clean, safe and great tasting water. UV does not alter taste, odor, color or pH of the water. UV systems are compact and easy to install. They require very little maintenance and have low energy running costs. All water used for human consumption including bathing and food preparation should be properly treated with ozone or UV sterilization.

WHAT IS OZONE STERILIZATION?
Ozone is a molecule that consists of three negatively charged oxygen atoms (instead of the two oxygen atoms contained in pure water "H2O"). The ozone molecule is very unstable and has a short half-life. Ozone is naturally produced by certain chemical reactions and by ultraviolet rays which derive from the sun. Ozone is one of the strongest known oxidants and can be used to burn dissolved compounds through oxidation. Ozone is used in the water purification process to oxidize inorganic substances such as toxic metals and chemicals and destroy organic microorganisms including viruses, bacteria and fungi. Ozone disinfection results when the third or extra oxygen atom is released from the ozone molecule. The oxygen radical binds with inorganic and organic contaminants in the water so that only pure and stable oxygen molecules (O2) remain. The result is ultra-clean, safe and healthy drinking water.

WHAT IS A WATER SOFTENING SYSTEM?
Hardness in water is caused by certain salts. The main hardness causing ions are Calcium, Magnesium and Bicarbonate. These ions or minerals are normally referred to as scale in the water because they cause scaling (mineral build-up) on plumbing pipes, equipment and systems that produce drinking water. Hard water prevents lathering of soap and causes spotting of glassware and dishes that is difficult to remove except with harsh detergents. Water softening units offer a water conditioning solution for hard water and lime scale removal. There are two general types of water softening systems. One type uses salt (NaCl) to regenerate the softening process and remove the hard minerals. The other type uses carbon or specific resins (HCL or NaOH) to filter the hard minerals from the water. Many RO water purification systems also include re-mineralization components that reintroduce healthy minerals to the drinking water in appropriate concentrations.

HOW DO I CHOOSE THE RIGHT WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ME?
Pure drinking water is the source of life. Choosing the right RO water purification system is an important decision. The source of your water (i.e. seawater, well, city tap) and your daily consumption requirements will determine the correct design and operating specifications for your RO system. PureH2O Ltd.® is the leading water technologies company in The Bahamas and can help you select the right RO water purification system for your requirements and budget.

 

DO RO SYSTEMS REQUIRE REGULAR MAINTENANCE?
Yes, your RO water purification system will require regular maintenance and service. The RO membranes must be periodically removed and cleaned (usually every 2-3 months depending on the quality of the source water). Brackish source water from shallow wells typically contains high concentrations of sediment that must be removed by filters before reaching the RO membranes. The RO membranes should be replaced every 2-3 years under normal operating conditions. The sediment and pre and post-treatment carbon micron filters should be changed on a regular schedule (usually every 3-6 months depending on water quality) to protect the RO membranes and extend the life of the other operating components of the system. The most expensive component of the RO system is the pressure pump and motor. The pump and motor should receive regular service by a qualified technician (much like an automobile engine) to ensure reliable, long-term operation.

HOW MUCH DO RO WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEMS COSTS?
Residential and commercial RO water purification systems are designed for different applications and performance requirements. The "operating specifications" will determine the best RO system for your requirements and the related price. Before purchasing an RO system, you should consult with a water technology expert to ensure the design and operating specifications for your system are correct. There are numerous decision factors to consider: has your source water been tested in a certified laboratory to determine the level of total dissolved solids and biological contaminants? What pre and post-treatment carbon filtration is appropriate for your system? What is the pH level of your source water? Does your water need to be softened? Will your water require UV or ozone sterilization? Will your drinking water require re-mineralization? These and other factors should be considered when you select the RO water purification system for your home, business or marine vessel. All RO water purification systems are not created equal. You should be careful to purchase your system from a reputable, technically qualified company that will stand behind its products and provide regular maintenance and service. RO systems come in a range of sizes and with different operating features. The single-point-of-use (under counter) RO units for the home produce up to 100 gallons of drinking water per day. The larger whole-house and commercial systems produce from several hundred to many thousands of gallons per day. The price for a high quality, single-point-of-use home RO unit will normally range from approximately $1,500-$1,800, plus additional equipment such as water softeners or UV sterilization units, and installation. Prices for larger whole-house and commercial RO systems will vary widely depending on the system design and operating specifications, and additional water conditioning and treatment equipment. Prices are normally quoted FOB factory which means that you must add the costs of shipping, government customs duty, and government VAT if you live in The Bahamas.

DOES PUREH2O LTD.® OFFER FINANCING?
Yes, financing is available to qualified buyers of our AquaPro RO® H-100 home RO water purification systems. Qualified buyers must provide employment verification and a bank reference. Financing terms begin as low as $39.95 per month with a 50% down payment on your purchase. Please contact us for more information regarding financing options.